Vegetalismo refers to the practice of Shamans and Curanderos who gain their knowledge and ability to heal from Vegetales, that is, from local medicinal plants in their environment, typically by regularly following a so-called Master Plant Dieta.
Some examples of the Master Teacher Plants (Plantas Maestras) they may use are Sanango, Coca, Chacruna, Mapacho, and Ayahuasca.
However, the knowledge to (help) cure a patient is not only confined to following a Master Plant Dieta, but can also come in actual healing sessions when the healer, for instance, drinks the Ayahuasca brew to instantaneously gain insights in the issues and needs of the patient.
Folk healers in Latin America that use the power and teachings of medicinal plants are often called Vegetalistas. Mind that many Vegetalistas are in fact Curanderos, mostly not belonging to an indigenous tribe. They usually combine Catholic religious elements with animistic and indigenous religious beliefs and wisdom.