Sperm banks, also called Cryobanks, are facilities that collect, freeze, and store sperm. The sperm is either donated by men for couples who want or need sperm donation for artificial insemination or an IVF treatment, or it’s given by men who want to preserve their sperm for future use.
Preservation for future use is increasing, because it’s a kind of “insurance” that in the event of decreased fertility (for instance, due to age related factors, a vasectomy, surgery or cancer) there’s a healthy amount of sperm available. To make a long story short, storing sperm ensures that there will be sperm available when it is needed or wanted.
Donating sperm for others means that men can earn money by doing so and at the same time help infertile singles or couples to have a baby. Of course, the donor will need to pass a range of health screenings and tests before the sperm can be accepted for artificial insemination. The sperm itself will also undergo thorough analysis.
Often the donor stays anonymous, but he can also choose to give his personal information to couples. Sperm can be kept frozen for many years, and, as far as known today, using frozen sperm doesn’t increase the risk of birth defects.